How to Sew a Sweater Knit Hem with a Twin Needle


Twin needle hems are quick, easy, and accurate, though not my preferred method. It's taken a few trials over the years, but I'm finally happy with a twin needle hem on a sweater knit. I'll show you how to get good results with this method but first a note about “quick and easy”.

Quick and easy is one way of accomplishing a task. It's not necessarily a good way or a bad way. Personally, I like methods that are slow and difficult. Really! I love to dive deeply into a technique, take my time, and enjoy the process. Sometimes the best way is that time-eating, challenging method and I am happy when I have the luxury of time to do it. But I also have appreciation for the quick and easy way. Sometimes it's just what's needed. What matters is that the quick way isn't also the sloppy way. This way happens to be quick, easy, and neat.

Although I now spend much  time teaching and enjoying cut and sew knitwear, I have many more years of hands-on experience with fully fashioned knitwear, shaping each piece as it's knitted, starting from the bottom of the sweater with a finished edge. My first ever twin needle hem was on the tangerine top shown below. It was my Clementina bamboo rib sweater knit (no longer available in the shop), and had an asymmetric, curved hem no less. Due to plain old luck it came out right the first time. Subsequent twin needle hems did not. To be fair, there are different types of sweater knits and not all of them are suitable for a twin needle. I think most bulky knits, for example, look bottom heavy with this finish.
Public side

Inside the sweater, the edge was overlocked before stitching with a twin needle on the public side 

My Saint Cloud fabric, in the Instagram Stories compilation below, is what I consider a medium-weight sweater knit. It's 100% wool and can survive the heat of an iron. Because it's also somewhat fuzzy, cut edges do not fray easily or have a ragged look. The fabric worked well with a twin needle finish. Ultimately, each sewist must evaluate the particular fabric's properties and make the decision about whether the finish looks finished enough.

About Coverstitch Machines

Coverstitch machines are more appropriate for thinner knits. I don't sew with one myself and don't have a lot of advice. Just as with the twin needle finish, I don't always like the look of a coverstitch on heavier knits. Regardless, know that the preparation for using a twin needle will also work for a coverstitch.

Materials and Tools
  • Tailor's chalk or fabric marker 
  • Sewable fusible web tape (slightly narrower than the hem width – I used 7/8” for a 1” hem). Please note the product I use is sold as "fusible web" not "fusible interfacing".
  • Ballpoint twin needle (I used size 80, with needles spaced 4 mm apart.)
  • Iron
The video below is a compilation of Instagram Stories I posted last Saturday #OnSaturdaysWeSewSweaters. Step by step written instructions are below the video.



Steps for a Neat Twin Needle Finish on Sweater Knits

Work with pre-washed fabric (as always)!

Step 1. Mark or pin the hem in your usual manner. Then mark the fold line on the wrong side of the sweater with your marker and remove any pins.


Step 2a (using web with no backing). When applying fusible web with no backing, sandwich it between the two sides of the hem. Line up the bottom edge of the web along the marked fold line on the wrong side of the fabric. Fold up the hem using the bottom edge of the web as a guide. Be sure no part of the web is exposed. You do not want your iron to touch any part of the web. Press. (this is one of the few exceptions to my “no iron, no press” rule*.)


Step 2b (using web with backing). If the fusible web has a backing (such as Clover fusible web, Heat 'n Bond Lite) then you need to use a 2-step process.
  • First, line up the bottom edge of the web along the marked fold line with paper backing side up. With your iron press on top of the paper backing to fuse it to the fabric, following manufacturer's instructions regarding iron settings and time. Peel off backing when cool. 
  • Fold up hem using the bottom edge of web as a guide and press, again following manufacturer's instructions.
In either case, “pressing” means placing the iron on the fabric for the indicated amount of time, lift the iron straight up, and repeating on the next section of hem. Do not slide the iron back and forth!

Fusible web provides temporary stability. When cool the hem will be slightly stiff, which is exactly what you need when sewing with a twin needle.


Step 3. Make sure you're using a twin ball point needle that's correctly sized for your sweater knit. Size 80 needles spaced 4.0 mm apart works well with this particular fabric. Sewing machine tension should be a little looser than normal. If your machine has a special twin needle setting, be sure to use it.

Once the fabric is cool, sew through the top edge of the web with a twin needle, public side up. You'll be able to see the edge of the hem through the fabric, so it'll be easy to keep things aligned.

Step 4. When finished sewing, if the hem is slightly stiff or seems too stable, give it a gentle stretch. The natural springiness of the fabric will return. Any remaining stiffness will disappear once the garment is washed. If necessary, trim on the inside with regular or duck billed scissors.

Trimming the inside hem of the Saint Cloud sweater
* That “no iron, no press” rule I mentioned? Steam your sweater knits by holding the iron half an inch to 2 inches above the fabric and allowing the steam to penetrate the fabric. Let the fabric dry before moving on to the next section. Do not iron. That is, don't allow the iron to rest on a sweater knit fabric. Do not push the iron back and forth on the fabric. Do not press. Do not allow the iron to rest on the sweater knit. Sometimes you will need to press when using fusibles (as in the tutorial above) but never ever press acrylic sweater knits or other sweater knits that are primarily synthetic. You might permanently press the springiness right out of the fabric a.k.a. “killing the knit”. At worse, the fabric will melt.

Summary

Mark hem. Turn hem and fuse with fusible web (important part)! Sew with twin needle when cool. Give a little stretch when done. That was quick and easy, wasn't it!

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O!

How to Sew Smooth Sweater Knit Seams

Smooth side seam on a shaped, double knit jacquard sweater -- this relatively stable sweater knit was washed before cutting.

Back in October of 2016 I had the pleasure and honor of chatting with Chuleenan of CSews about sweater knit fabrics and related topics. While conducting a giveaway, we asked readers what they imagined to be most challenging when sewing sweater knits. The most mentioned challenging issue turned out to be rippled seams; that is, the challenge some face in getting a sewn sweater knit seam to lie flat and not pucker. I'm happy to say that there are solutions to this problem. Some sweater knits are more difficult to work with than others, but there's usually some method or tweak that will give you the smooth seam you desire. Though I've discussed aspects of this issue before, my goal is to tackle the subject in more depth today.

Smooth Seams Start Before You Sew

Smooth seams begin with well prepped fabric. Just as you would wash any other fabric before you even think of cutting, the same is true for a sweater knit. Sweater knits are generally washed at the knitting mill that produces them, but wax (to help the fabric knit smoothly on the industrial knitting machine) and soil (sometimes present with natural fabrics that haven't been bleached or dyed) may remain in the fiber. Your careful washing of the fabric will do wonders to remove any debris that remains stuck in the yarn. The washed fabric is fuller with a little more body and stability.

Washing may impart enough stability to keep the seams from stretching when you sew. Indeed it's the stretch of some sweater knits that causes them to ripple when sewn. Both natural  and synthetic fabrics will yield a better result after washing. The key is to squeeze water from the fabric without stretching. (Roll fabric in towel and squeeze. Never wring.) Allow the fabric to dry flat, without stretching, and allow the fabric to find its natural size. Remember to serge or zigzag any cut or unfinished edge before washing and to follow the care instructions for the fabric.
Very unstable fabric used for hat with no rippling at the seams -- I used light pressure and a walking foot.

Too Much Pressure

So you've washed and allowed your fabric to dry. You're testing your stitches on scraps of fabrics to get your settings on your sewing machine just right, but you're still not getting smooth seams? Your fabric is becoming stretched out as you sew. It could be your presser foot that's causing your troubles. Or more precisely, it's most likely the pressure of your presser foot on the fabric.

Imagine as you sew, the feed dogs on the machine below your fabric diligently moving your fabric forward. The downward pressure of the presser foot keeps your fabric flat on either side of the needle. If the presser foot delivers too much pressure, however, it will work against the feed dogs. The standard presser foot sometimes holds the fabric in place allowing the already stretchy fabric to stretch even more as the feed dogs below the fabric work to move the fabric forward. The result is a lumpy, ripply seam.

One solution is to reduce the pressure of the presser foot. On some sewing machines reducing this pressure is a simple turn of a knob. (See your sewing machine manual for location of this knob, if available.) On other machines the option is not available.

What is available for most machines is a walking foot, also known as an even feed foot. This foot will work with the feed dogs of your sewing machine. The walking foot provides an extra set of feed dogs above the fabric. When the walking foot is not integrated into a sewing machine as with certain industrial machines and domestic Pfaff machines, a bar on the walking foot attachment connects with the needle clamp screw of the sewing machine. As the needle moves down, the fabric grippers (feed dogs) on the foot move away from the fabric. The grippers lower to meet the fabric again as the needle raises. Feed dogs above and below work in tandem to advance the fabric forward and the sweater knit is fed evenly through the machine. This synchronized action will prevent stretching in many situations.



Serger/Overlocker Set Up 

Whether you're using a serger to finish your seams or for construction, the differential feed ratio must be set up properly. This setting is a ratio comparing the speed of the front feed that brings the fabric to the needles with the speed of the rear feed that moves the fabric away from the needles. A setting of 1 means the feeds are going at the same speed. That setting, however, would stretch out most sweater knits. A setting between 1.5 and 2 will work for most sweater knits. With this setting the front feed is moving 1.5 to 2 times faster than the rear feed, preventing the sweater knit from getting stretched out.
In this pic the front feed is to the right of the thread tail and the rear feed is to the left.

As with your sewing machine, you’ll also need to set a proper tension and stitch size.

Step Away from the Edge

Many knits will be more unstable with little recovery closer to the cut edge. They may even have gotten stretched out from less than careful handling. Working with a wider seam allowance and sewing further away from the cut edge is sometimes all that's needed to produce a smooth seam.

Use Temporary Stabilizers

So many good products exist from spray-on starch (commercial or homemade) to wash away and tear away products made specifically for sewing. Personally, I prefer the wash away stabilizers because picking out remaining pieces of tear away can be a chore. (See how I use wash away stabilizer on difficult fabrics here.)

Steam is Your Friend

Steaming a slightly puckered, overstretched seam is definitely allowed and recommended. Hold the iron at least a half inch above the seam, 2 inches or more if working with synthetics. (Try this on a scrap first!!!) Allow the steam from your iron to penetrate the fabric. Then, pat the fabric gently into place with your hand. Let the fabric dry undisturbed to shrink back to size. It's amazing what steam will do, especially with cotton, linen, wool, or silk. But this will only work if the pucker is tiny, so don't depend on this tip if your ripples are major.
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Sometimes it's just a matter of practice, learning how to handle various sweater knits, and becoming used to how your machine handles these fabrics. I would love to hear any suggestions and experiences you've had in the comments below.

For more tips and techniques on working with sweater knits, subscribe to the email list here. Discounts on sweater knit fabrics, too!

O!


How to Cut and Sew a Minimum Waste Sweater


If the diagram above makes your eyes cross and gives you a pounding headache, then this article isn’t for you. Though a zero waste specialist would consider my design quite simple, I admit to being quite happy with the way it turned out.

I'm pretty sure that similar tops have been made thousands of times before. The cutting and sewing took about a minute. (I exaggerate.) The planning took a couple of days, but not full days, just every now and then over a period of two days in January.

I broke a few rules with the wool sweater knit I was using. We're usually told to work with the stretchiest direction around the body. (I've certainly said that enough times.) But Saint Cloud sweater knit is lightweight and relatively stable. I found it stable enough for me to use with the stretchiest direction hanging as the yoke; the rest of the bodice is lightweight enough not to pull on the yoke and stretch it out. Even without shoulder seams or stabilization, it works.

Most of the sweater's details were described in my previous post about this sweater.

As I look at my layout today, I see a few possible variations:
  • Rotate the layout 90 degrees so that the orientation for each main piece switches. This way I could probably use a heavier fabric, since the yoke would better support the weight of the bodice. That is, lay it out and sew the sweater so that the finished sweater hangs...

  • Add bands to the sleeves (as cuffs) and at the hem. It would use more fabric, but it fits into my sewing with rectangles theme. :)
  • Use one sweater knit fabric for the yoke and a totally different one for the bodice. 
  • And of course making a pocket with the cut out fabric from neckline.
Scraps from the trimming the hems and the neckline
Perhaps my wool sweater is seasonally inappropriate as the temperature reaches above 80° F today in New York City. As Fashion Revolution Week 2017 comes to an end, however, I'm glad that I could post my pattern for a minimum waste cut and sew sweater today. The Fashion Revolution must take place each day, of course.


How to Cut and Sew a Minimum Waste Sweater -- The Pattern

This sweater is comfortably loose. I used a yard and a quarter of relatively stable sweater fabric. With half-inch seam allowances it fits size 34" bust with 5 inches of ease. These are basic instructions only. Sew and finish seams and hems in your preferred method. (I sewed the main seams with a narrow zigzag 0.75 mm wide by 2.5 mm long. I steamed seam allowances to one side, then top stitched. I used a twin needle to hem the sleeves and the bottom of the sweater.)
  1. With a felt tip erasable fabric marker or tailor's chalk, draw lines on sweater knit fabric, as indicated by solid black lines in diagram at the top of this page. 
  2. Cut on marked lines. 
  3. With a felt tip erasable fabric marker or tailor's chalk, mark the dotted blue lines on yoke/sleeves piece.
  4. Using the template, trace, then cut out shape for the neckline.
  5. Sew binding to neckline.
  6. Pin together, then sew Front aa to Front Yoke aa.
  7. Pin together, then sew Back bb to Back Yoke bb.
  8. Pin together, then sew Sleeve c1 and c2 and Side Seam c3 and c4
  9. Pin together, then sew Sleeve d1 and d2 and Side Seam d3 and d4
  10. Sew hems.
If you have any questions or see any mistakes, please let me know. Everything's a rectangle so it's pretty easy to scale up or down. Download the neckline template here. No sign up is necessary, but if you'd like to receive my newsletter (sweater knit fabrics, sweater fashion, tips and techniques for sewing sweater knits), subscribe here.

O!
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Last update 12Nov2017